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Hydrocodone , Phoenix Arizona

Hydrocodone is a semi-synthetic opioid produced from codeine, an opioid found in opium poppy plant. The drug falls under the narcotic analgesics or pain killer medicines. Commonly comes in a liquid form, doctors prescribed the drug to relieve pain, stops and even prevents a cough.  The drug is considered as an opioid which affects the nervous system and used as a pain medication to alleviate moderate to severe pain.

The drug proved as more helpful than codeine for suppressing cough but more deadly that morphine.

History of Hydrocodone

In 1920 Carl Mannich and Helene Lowenheim first synthesized hydrocodone in Germany.  The Food and Drug Administration approved the use of the drug on March 23, 1943. The Health Canada also approved hydrocodone under the brand name, hycodan.

The two added oxygen to codeine to solve the common side effect of it such as stomach discomfort and high level of toxicity.

Knoll first marketed hydrocodone as Dicodid in Germany on February 1924. Within a few years, several drugs came out in the market such as Dilaudid, Dihydrin, Dinarkon and Dimorphan.

Reports of addiction from the drug did not become apparent until 1961, more than 30 years since it first marketed.

How it is abused

As a painkiller, hydrocodone acts in the thousands of opioid receptors on the body. It does not cure the pain through its source, it only changes the patient’s perception of the pain. The feeling can be habit-forming particularly to people who seek the sensation. Some of the sought after sensation includes, numbness, sleepiness, reduced stress even increased the sense of one’s self.


According to the International Narcotics Control Board, hydrocodone is prescribed mainly in the United States. Reports stated that the US consumed about 99% of the international supply in 2007. The prescribed name of Hydrocodone includes Vicodin, Norco, and Lortab.


In a study of the National Institute of Health or NIH, it estimated that 20% of Americans consumed the drug such as Vicodin for non-medical reasons. An increasing number of people abused the drug. A more alarming report came from the Drug Enforcement Administration or DEA in 2013. The report shows that in the US alone, 24 million over the 21 years of age used hydrocodone for no apparent reasons.


One key factor that made hydrocodone as one highly addictive drug is its availability. The DEA reported that 136 hydrocodone dispensed prescription were made in 2013. Numbers continues to rise with an added increase of 20 million of prescription each year since 2006.


Hydrocodone use resulted to an estimated 100,000 abuse-related hospital emergency related in the US for the year 2011. To decrease the numbers, the US government created stricter prescribing rules for the drug in 2014.

Signs and symptoms

Addiction to hydrocodone usually starts with a prescription which leads to its dependence. It then gradually rises for the need to consume hydrocodone in spite of its side effects. The effects of hydrocodone can be deadly like that of morphine and heroin.

The drug works in the reward system of the brain which fortifies for its dependence. Prolonged abuse of the drug can result in the short and long term damage in both physical and mental state.

Mild Side Effects

Patients taking hydrocodone may experience some mild effects which gradually wears off. These may include:

  •    Dizziness
  •    Drowsiness
  •    Headache
  •    Nausea
  •    Muscle weakness
  •    Itchiness
  •    Trouble sleeping

Severe Side Effects of Hydrocodone

Long-term exposure to hydrocodone can lead to irreversible outcomes. The drug can affect the normal function of the brain reward system, thus making it hard to find pleasure in most activities.

Hydrocodone contains depressant quality and can result to some of the serious side effects listed. The drug can slow down the heart rate which may stop the beating of the heart. It is important to seek immediate medical attention when these symptoms are noticed or felt:

  •    Trouble urinating
  •    Slowed or erratic heartbeat
  •    breathing problems
  •    bowel obstruction
  •    severe itching, hives or swelling
  •    vomiting

Problem with Hydrocodone Addiction

The most difficult about hydrocodone addiction will be the intervention. The drug’s availability made it impossible to stop a user since their perception is that they are following a legitimate doctor’s order. It is important to consider the options for the overall treatment of the patient. RehabNear.Me is dedicated to providing insightful articles and the best addiction treatment centers near you!

About Phoenix

Phoenix ( FEE-niks; Navajo: Hoozdo, [xòːztò]; O'odham: S-ki:kigk; Spanish: Fénix Walapai: Banyà:nyuwá) is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arizona, with 1,608,139 residents as of 2020. It is the fifth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous state capital in the country.Phoenix is the most populous city of the Phoenix metropolitan area, also known as the Valley of the Sun, which in turn is part of the Salt River Valley and Arizona Sun Corridor. The metro area is the 10th-largest by population in the United States with approximately 4.85 million people as of 2020, making it the most populous in the Southwestern United States. Phoenix, the seat of Maricopa County, is the largest city by area in Arizona, with an area of 517.9 square miles (1,341 km2), and is also the 11th-largest city by area in the United States.Phoenix was settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers and was incorporated as a city in 1881. It became the capital of Arizona Territory in 1889. Its canal system led to a thriving farming community with the original settlers' crops, such as alfalfa, cotton, citrus, and hay, remaining important parts of the Economy of Phoenix for decades. Cotton, cattle, citrus, climate, and copper were known locally as the "Five C's" anchoring Phoenix's economy. These remained the driving forces of the city until after World War II, when high-tech companies began to move into the valley and air conditioning made Phoenix's hot summers more bearable.Phoenix is the cultural center of Arizona. It is in the northeastern reaches of the Sonoran Desert and is known for its hot desert climate. The region's gross domestic product reached over $362 billion by 2022. The city averaged a four percent annual population growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid-2000s, and was among the nation's ten most populous cities by 1980. Phoenix is also one of the largest majority-Hispanic cities in the United States, with 42% of its population being Hispanic.

About Arizona

Arizona ( ARR-ih-ZOH-nə; Navajo: Hoozdo Hahoodzo [hoː˥z̥to˩ ha˩hoː˩tso˩]; O'odham: Alĭ ṣonak [ˈaɭi̥ ˈʂɔnak]) is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States. Arizona is part of the Four Corners region with Utah to the north, Colorado to the northeast, and New Mexico to the east; its other neighboring states are Nevada to the northwest, California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest. It is the 6th-largest and the 14th-most-populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912. Historically part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848, where the area became part of the territory of New Mexico. The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, and spruce trees; the Colorado Plateau; mountain ranges (such as the San Francisco Mountains); as well as large, deep canyons, with much more moderate summer temperatures and significant winter snowfalls. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff, Sunrise, and Tucson. In addition to the internationally known Grand Canyon National Park, which is one of the world's seven natural wonders, there are several national forests, national parks, and national monuments. Arizona's population and economy have grown dramatically since the 1950s because of inward migration, and the state is now a major hub of the Sun Belt. Cities such as Phoenix and Tucson have developed large, sprawling suburban areas. Many large companies, such as PetSmart and Circle K, have headquarters in the state, and Arizona is home to major universities, including the University of Arizona and Arizona State University. The state is known for a history of conservative politicians such as Barry Goldwater and John McCain, though it has become a swing state since the 1990s. Arizona is home to a diverse population. About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Since the 1980s, the proportion of Hispanics in the state's population has grown significantly owing to migration from Mexico. A substantial portion of the population are followers of the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
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